James S. Brady Press Briefing Room
2:34 P.M. EDT
MR. CARNEY: Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. Thank you for coming to the daily briefing. I do not have any announcements to make at the top, so I will go right to your questions.
Q How and when was the President informed of Qaddafi’s death?
MR. CARNEY: The President, as you know, had a -- or has been reported and reported accurately, the President had a regularly scheduled daily briefing this morning, presidential daily briefing.
He was aware prior to that of the reports of Muammar Qaddafi’s death. And as has also been reported, we were working with our allies, as well as others, to confirm those reports. We have confidence in those reports, and that’s why the President made the statement that he did make.
Q Does the U.S. have a clear idea about who is in charge in Libya right now?
MR. CARNEY: Yes, the TNC is in charge. It is the only authority now claiming to be in charge in Libya. And I would refer you to what the President said about the process now going forward once liberation has been established and declared and the commitments that the TNC has made in terms of moving forward with the transitional government and a democratic future for Libya.
Q Do you feel that you have a sufficient understanding about who those individuals are, and do you have any concerns about what you may not know?
MR. CARNEY: Well, it’s been now seven months, I believe, since the NATO mission was undertaken. It has been a number of months since we recognized the TNC. And we have, even prior to that, been engaged diplomatically with the TNC, as have our allies. So we have a good, we believe, feeling for and understanding of that body. And we would simply point you to the statements that they have made about their commitment to a democratic transition in Libya.
Q And finally, does the President view this development as a vindication of his approach to war?
MR. CARNEY: The President views this as a victory for the Libyan people. The approach that he took was to assess the situation in Libya, which at the time was faced with potential massacre at the hands of the Qaddafi regime. He understood that we working with our allies could take action to prevent a massacre of Libyans in Benghazi, and he took that action and engaged, as you recall, the U.S. military in a leading role initially in that action, in that NATO mission; and then as promised, a supporting role, thereafter.
I remember saying at the time that this was an action designed to give Libya the best chance and the Libyan people the best chance to determine their future; that it needed to be for the Libyans to take control over their country, and for the Libyans to decide how and by whom they would be led.
We believe, the President believes, that the actions taken by his administration and by NATO have helped the Libyan people reach this day, and that they now have an opportunity to secure a much brighter and more democratic future. And that was the goal all along. When you make the calculations that this President made then and makes when all matters of national security are at stake, he looks at American interests and he looks at our ideals. And they do not have to be mutually exclusive. That is the approach that he took here, and it is the approach he applies as Commander-in-Chief.
Q Jay, the President mentioned the inevitable end of the rule of the Iron Fist in his remarks just now. Does the President believe that Qaddafi’s downfall sends a message to Syria’s Assad?
MR. CARNEY: The President believes that Syria’s leader has lost his legitimacy to rule. The violence he has perpetrated against his own people is unacceptable. I think it’s fair to say that the events of this entire year in that region of the world have spoken more dramatically than any individual could about where the future lies in that region. And it’s a future that lies with the youth of the region and those who are demanding greater democracy, greater accountability from their governments, greater freedom. That’s as true in Syria as it is in Libya.
Q Just to follow up, will the President now deepen U.S. support for the Libyans and help them with the transition?
MR. CARNEY: We remain committed, as the President said, to Libya and to the Libyan people. We will work with our international partners to further assist Libya as they make this transition. As the President said, Libya’s future is obviously undetermined. There is a long and winding road ahead for Libya. What we have witnessed today and what we have witnessed over the past several months is the Libyan people taking control of their country, and putting themselves in a position to create a better future for the young people in Libya and future generations of Libyans.
There are no guarantees as to what that future will look like, but they are in a far better place now because of what they achieved with our assistance and with NATO’s assistance. And that makes this a very good day.
Q Just to follow up. What will the U.S. be doing to help the Libyans through this process? I know there are a lot of State Department personnel on the ground there, very few military personnel just guarding the U.S. embassy there. But what exactly can the U.S. do and will the U.S. do?
MR. CARNEY: Well, I think it’s a little premature to get into specific forms of assistance. I would refer you to the State Department for the kinds of assistance we’ve already provided.
Q You guys have been planning for this day for eight months and two days --
MR. CARNEY: Well, no question. But I just don’t have a lot of information about what kind of assistance we’ll be providing Libya in the future beyond what we’ve already announced in terms of, as you mentioned, personnel on the ground, our embassy, in our efforts to -- related to security.
But going forward, we will, as the President said, be committed to helping Libya, together with our international partners, helping the Libyan people make this important transition.
Q My understanding is NATO is moving tomorrow to talk about what next, or whether just to end the mission now that Qaddafi is apparently gone. Can you tell us any more about that?
MR. CARNEY: Well, I think it’s clear that the NATO mission is coming to an end. I’ll leave it to NATO to formally declare that. But the mission that was outlined in the United Nations Security Council resolution was very clear, which was to protect the Libyan people from violence perpetrated by forces associated with the Qaddafi regime -- not just because of the announcement of Qaddafi’s death, but because of the successful taking of Sirte and other areas. Most of Libya is now under control of rebel forces, under control of the TNC, and that obviously bears on the NATO mission, bears on the security of the Libyan people. But I will leave it to NATO to make announcements about that.
Let me move it back a little bit. Yes, sir.
Q Jay, the President mentioned that he called on the Libyan authorities to work with the international community to obtain dangerous materials. Can you elaborate on that? And what kind of dangerous materials the President was referring to?
MR. CARNEY: Well, as you know, and we have talked about before, the United States is committing -- committed, rather, to helping Libya secure its conventional weapons stockpiles, including the recovery, control and disposal of shoulder-fired antiaircraft missiles. In the wrong hands, these systems -- also known as man portable air defense systems, or MANPADS -- can pose a potential threat to civil aviation. We welcome the leadership of the TNC on this issue. The TNC has made a formal request for U.S. support and we are fully committed to expanding our assistance efforts.
As you know, and this was previously announced, since April, U.S. activities include $3 million in aid to MAG International and the Swiss Foundation for de-mining international NGOs that have been on the ground working with the TNC to survey and secure bunkers, clear unexploded ordnance and destroy unsecured conventional weapons, including MANPADS, $2.75 million to fund our quick reaction force civilian technical specialists who have been on the ground in Libya since early September, and ongoing consultations with regional governments and our international partners to build a coordinated approach to this shared security challenge.
In cooperation with the TNC, our teams on the ground have already disabled or destroyed hundreds of MANPADS in Libya. In addition, we believe that thousands of MANPADS were destroyed during NATO operations. Weapons bunkers were a major target. Many of these weapons are also under the control of TNC forces.
Q I’ve seen the language here, I’ve heard the announcement of Qaddafi’s death, but I haven’t heard you or the President say specifically Qaddafi is dead or have that -- has that not been confirmed by the White House and what would you need to confirm that?
MR. CARNEY: We are confident in the reporting, and we have obviously seen the announcements by the authorities in Libya from the TNC. So we have no reason to doubt this. We’re not on the ground making that assessment. But we have confidence in the reports that Qaddafi is dead.
Q Jay, the Vice President said this morning America spent $2 billion total and didn’t lose a single life: “This is more prescription about how we ought to deal going forward.” Does the President agree that this is a prescription for the future that isn’t just for Libya?
MR. CARNEY: The Vice President’s point is an important one. Actually, far less than $2 billion -- between $1 and $2 billion total.
Q I wasn’t contesting --
MR. CARNEY: No, no, but I think it’s important that the approach the President took here was designed to ensure that we worked together internationally with our partners, that NATO functioned as it should, and that our allies, after an initial phase when United States military forces took the lead, that our allies in NATO thereafter took the lead and we were in support.
That enabled us to do many things. Most importantly, it led to a mission that, in protecting Libyan civilians, allowed Libyans to control the outcome of their revolution and to decide their own future.
They own what happened in Libya, and they should be rightly proud of what they’ve accomplished. I think it’s important also that in doing this, we were able to provide this essential leading role and then assistance role through the remarkable contributions of our military forces, as well as our civilian personnel, and to do it without a single U.S. casualty.
Q But what about in other countries? I mean, in Syria where over 3,000 civilians, reports say, have been killed? I mean, his point that it’s a prescription about moving forward --
MR. CARNEY: I think his point is that we need to -- whenever we face situations around the world that may or may not require -- that may require action, that we should always work with our allies and look at the opportunities to work collectively with our allies and partners to do that; that this is all about taking a long view -- what kind of outcome best serves American interests and best serves American ideals. That was the approach the President took here, and it is again, as I said earlier, the approach he takes when he assesses all of our challenges abroad.
Q And on jobs, if I may ask a question --
MR. CARNEY: Sure, sure.
Q -- the Vice President also talked about crime recently in relation to the part of the jobs plan that we’ll be seeing coming up for a vote in the Senate -- the money for teachers, police officers, firefighters. And he had an exchange with a reporter from a conservative news organization on the Hill. He said --
MR. CARNEY: You’re beating his colleague to the punch here, but okay. (Laughter.)
Q -- this was about -- this was some comments that he made about rapes and murders going up, and he clarified his comments. He said, “I said rape was up three times in Flint. Those are the numbers. Go look at the numbers. Murder is up. Rape is up. Burglary is up. That’s what I said.” The reporter countered, “And if the Republicans don’t pass this bill then rape will continue to rise.” And the Vice President said, “Murder will continue to rise. Rape will continue to rise. All crime will continue to rise.” Does the President agree?
MR. CARNEY: I think it would be hard to find anyone who doesn’t agree with the simple equation that fewer police officers on the street has a direct effect on the crime rate. We saw this in the ‘90s, and it’s -- I don’t know that anybody -- any lawmaker up on Capitol Hill would contest that simple fact that -- or any American who makes that assessment in their local communities, would you want fewer or more law enforcement officers on the job, and do you think that would -- having more law enforcement officers on the job, police officers on the job, would have a positive impact on crime. That’s the point he was making. And that’s a point that the President absolutely does share.
Q Republicans are jumping on this, saying that they’re being told their opposition means more people will be raped, more people will be murdered. What does the President say to that?
MR. CARNEY: You can focus on the words or you can focus on the simple fact. The President put in the American Jobs Act a provision that would provide assistance to states to put teachers back to work and to put firefighters and police officers back to work, first responders. I mean, are they arguing -- are Republicans arguing that there is no correlation between the number of cops on the beat and the crime rate? That would be an interesting argument to hear. It’s a new one, a novel one, but I’d like to hear it.
Yes, we are saying that more police officers on the beat is a good thing and will help keep crime rates lower. More firefighters fighting fires will reduce the impact that fires will have in our communities, and will save lives. That’s a fact. And more teachers in our classroom will -- in our classrooms, in our schools, will enhance the education that our children get around the country, further strengthening our position going into the -- as we continue to compete globally in the 21st century.
That’s why the President wants the American Jobs Act passed. Now taking it up provision by provision. These are essential. Putting these people back to work is good because it puts them back to work.
The added benefits are also extremely important. The added benefits of putting teachers back to work are obvious, I think, to anyone who has children -- anyone who cares about the future of this country and the needs that we have in terms of education, and the direct correlation between a better educated America and a more competitive America. More police officers, more firefighters on the job, has a direct impact on crime and can save lives in terms of fires and other emergencies.
So the President believes very strongly that there used to be bipartisan support for this kind of approach, and we hope there will be as the Senate takes up this important measure.
Q Jay, granted, every situation is different. But if you look at Iraq and you look at Libya they’re very different approaches. With Iraq it was almost entirely a U.S. effort; we paid for it entirely, over 5,000 lives lost. In Libya, we were part of an international coalition under the U.N.; didn’t foot the entire bill and no American lives lost.
So if you look at those two, is the administration saying, Iraq was the way we used to do things, Libya is now that way we’re going to try to do things, we’re building on it?
MR. CARNEY: I think we’ll let analysts make observations about that comparison. The President simply believes that the action that he took, that this administration took -- working with our allies, working with NATO, working with our partners in the Arab world -- was the right action for Libya.
And most importantly, whether -- it’s hard to grade the importance here, but it is vitally important for Libya’s future that Libyans won this fight; that Libyans have secured their country, have removed a brutal regime and a brutal tyrant. And that best positions that country and those people as they create their future, and it gives them a better opportunity for a democratic -- more democratic, more free and more prosperous future.
It is obviously also important that the United States was able to do this by sharing the burden with our allies and partners. That allowed the cost to be very low, and most importantly, it allowed us to experience no U.S. casualties.
Q So would you say this is Obama’s way versus Bush’s way of going to war?
MR. CARNEY: I’ll let others make those kinds of observations. We simply believe that this was the right approach. The President -- I remember standing here and there were a lot of people suggesting that we should be marching into Libya with U.S. troops on the ground. The President didn’t believe that was the right course of action. The President believed that it was important to do this collectively. The President believed it was important to take action because there was an immediate need to save lives, large number of lives, in Benghazi. And he assessed what was happening on the ground. He assessed the request from the Libyan opposition. He assessed the input from our allies and worked with the United Nations, worked with NATO, to take this action.
Q It’s been almost exactly seven months since March 19th when the President announced that American and European forces were going to begin these airstrikes. And he faced a great deal of criticism in that time from people on the Hill who said that he was leading from behind and seeking victory on the cheap. How would you respond to those critics today?
MR. CARNEY: I think this is a day not to engage in politics but to commend the Libya people on what they’ve accomplished, and to commend our armed forces and our civilian personnel for the role they played in making Libya --
Q Would the White House say this is a validation of the President’s foreign policy goals?
MR. CARNEY: Well, I think I’ve made clear that we believe that the President made the right decisions to work with our allies, to work with NATO, to work with the United Nations, not to do something on the cheap but because it was the right policy answer to the situation that presented itself, taking a long-term view about what outcome do you want in Libya. And the President’s assessment was that there are no guarantees in these kinds of situations, but that he believed it was important that collectively, working with our allies and partners, that it was worth taking the action to save lives immediately and to help Libya be in the best possible position to determine its own future, to put it in the best possible position to make that future more democratic, more free and more prosperous.
That was his view, and he wasn’t particularly interested in how that looked the first weekend or the second weekend; he was more concerned about how it would look well down the road, and how that would affect American national security interests and how it would affect Libya’s future.
Q There are reports that a U.S. Predator drone and a French fighter jet were involved in striking Qaddafi’s compound -- convoy that led to his death. Can you outright say that the U.S. did not kill Qaddafi? Some of its assets did not kill Qaddafi?
MR. CARNEY: We’re hearing a lot of reports about action. I believe NATO has made a statement about NATO action against a convoy, but I can’t elaborate on that. I don’t have any information to provide to you on that. I think it’s worth noting that there have been a lot of reports, as often is the case in these situations -- some of them contradictory. But I would point you to what NATO said.
Q So how was Qaddafi killed?
MR. CARNEY: Again, I think I would point you to what NATO said and then point you to the many conflicting reports about what actually happened on the ground.
Let me -- I’ll go to --
Q Can I just follow on Norah briefly by quoting Marco Rubio who said that, “you have to give credit where credit is due.” He said the British and French led the way. When you hear that kind of suggestion that the President did not lead the way, you say?
MR. CARNEY: Again, Ed, I just think this is not the day for politics. I did note that Senator Rubio issued a statement pretty soon after that commending the actions of American servicemen and American civilian personnel, which I think is important. And I think that’s the only comment I have on that.
Q But he said the President’s policy he thinks in the end was right but that it took him too long to get there basically.
MR. CARNEY: Well, history will judge. I think it’s important to ask, whether it’s that senator or another one, or others who are observing this, what action, what alternative action they’re suggesting. Were they suggesting U.S. troops on the ground? Were they suggesting unilateral action by the United States of America, using force? Obviously those were options that were assessed here at the White House. The President chose a different path, working with our allies, taking a lead initially that, as he said today, put Americans in harm’s way -- there’s no question. But it was the kind of operation that gave the Libyan people the best chance of success, ensured the protection of Libyan civilians, and allowed us to work collectively and cooperatively with our partners and allies. That was the approach the President thought that was best. And today is a day where we can celebrate the demise of a tyrant and the potential for a brighter future in Libya.
Q Lastly, when you said earlier that the prism is what best serves America’s interests moving forward, in terms of policy, when you intervene and whatnot -- this is our first chance to talk to you on camera about last week, the President deploying 100 U.S. troops to Central Africa. What is the U.S. national security interest there?
MR. CARNEY: Ed, I would point you to the President’s comments, I believe in an interview he gave to ABC earlier this week, where he was asked about this and addressed it. And I think he said it better than I could.
Q Could you elaborate for everyone? Jake is wonderful, but --
MR. CARNEY: Again, I don’t really anything further to say on that, but State Department I’m sure does, or Defense Department.
Yes. And then I’ll move around again.
Q The President talked about hoping to see a quick transition to an interim government and then democratic government. What sort of timeline are you hoping to see, and what sort of benchmarks moving forward over the next several months?
MR. CARNEY: I think this -- let me see, I think I might have something on that. We’ve obviously in an early period here after the demise of Colonel Qaddafi. We have been heartened by the actions and statements -- actions taken by and statements made by the TNC, and about their commitment to ensuring a positive, democratic transition. There is a framework set up that involves declaring liberation and then moving forward from there. I certainly would wait for that -- for those actions from the TNC moving forward.
Q And just going back to Syria quickly -- one member of the Syrian National Council was quoted as saying, “If the regime,” -- meaning the Syrian regime -- “continues to be so irresponsible, our main objective is to call for the protection of civilians along the lines of a U.N. no-fly zone set up in Libya to clear the way for NATO airstrikes.” What’s your reaction to that, and is that a realistic request or goal?
MR. CARNEY: I understand the desire to make analogies and comparisons. One thing that we have said from the beginning, this whole year, is that circumstances in each country is different. And in the region, depending on the country, the circumstances can be different.
The action we took in Libya was specific to Libya. It involved an immediate threat of massacre in Benghazi; it involved a request from opposition forces; it involved a coalition of nations that wanted to act, including not just Western nations but nations in the region. And that fed into the decision-making process here. Every country is different, and I think we have been absolutely clear about our position with regards to Syria, with regard to the Syrian regime.
I want to say, on your earlier question, that, at this time of transition, we look to the TNC to move quickly to announce an empowered interim government, and begin the formal transition period leading to Libya’s first free and fair elections. We also expect the TNC to provide leadership in promoting reconciliation and respect for human rights across Libyan society, and to unify armed groups under clear civilian command and control.
Q Three-day bus tour ended yesterday, and there were several messages from the President, such as that those who are incredibly blessed should pay their shares, or he’s not the Democratic President, nor Republican President, he’s the President of the United States.
So do you feel his message has been well accepted? What’s your evaluation of the effectiveness of the bus tour?
MR. CARNEY: Well, the President traveled through North Carolina and Virginia to talk about the need to take action -- for Washington to take action -- right away to help the economy grow and to help the economy create jobs. That’s why he put forward the American Jobs Act; that’s why he is continuing to press Congress to pass individual elements from the jobs act, after Republican senators voted in unison to block the passage of the entire American Jobs Act.
His point is simply that it’s called the American Jobs Act -- it’s not called the Republican Jobs Act or the Democratic Jobs Act -- because it is filled with ideas to put Americans back to work, and it’s filled with ideas that have traditionally enjoyed -- the kinds of ideas that have traditionally enjoyed not just Democratic but Republican support.
And I want to clarify something that I’ve said in the past, and just reiterate that, yes, the Republicans have put forward plans and proposals that they have called jobs proposals, and there are ideas there that have -- some of which have merit -- in fact, some of which we have already acted on, including the free trade agreements with Panama, Colombia and South Korea; including patent reform. And there will be other measures, I’m sure, that we can cooperate with Republicans on.
I have not said the Republicans don’t have proposals. What I have said is that the Republicans don’t have proposals that would help the economy grow or help it create jobs now. And that’s not my assessment alone, it is the assessment of the same independent economists who have evaluated the American Jobs Act and said that in the near term, it would boost growth by up to 2 percent, and in the near term, it could create up to 1.9 million jobs. That’s the comparison.
We felt -- I know the President felt the bus trip was very useful, very -- and that his reception was excellent. And there is nothing -- I think it is highly valuable for any president to get out in the country and to speak with ordinary Americans, to hear from them the kind of challenges they’re facing with this economy. And that’s what he did in North Carolina and Virginia; that’s what he did in Illinois, Iowa and Minnesota; and I’m sure he will do it moving forward in coming weeks and months.
Q Jay, the President has been very successful in his efforts to go against terror in the capture of Osama bin Laden, another leader of al Qaeda, and now with the death of Muammar Qaddafi.
How does this administration reconcile this President, a man of war, and a man of peace, after he received the Nobel Peace Prize?
MR. CARNEY: April, I think in answer to that question, it’s useful to go back and look at the speech the President gave when he received that prize, and he spoke a lot about both peace and war. And he’s Commander-in-Chief, and he is absolutely committed to protecting American national security interests, to protecting Americans abroad, both in uniform and civilians, and to taking the fight to al Qaeda and others who are bent on destruction of Americans and of the United States.
He’s also said, in that speech, “We reject as false the choice between our safety and our ideals.” You can pursue both. And he -- that balance is something that he tries to achieve as he confronts the many challenges that this country faces, both internationally and at home.
Q Can you still successfully say that this President is a man of peace, Nobel Peace Prize winner? Can you successfully say he’s still a man of peace?
MR. CARNEY: I can say that he’s a President and a man who desires peace. But he also has as his highest responsibility and priority the protection of the United States, the protection of the American people.
I’ll leave it at that.
Let me get all the way back. Cheryl.
Q Thanks. Jay, getting back to the jobs bill, it’s always about the pay-fors, and the Republicans just won’t increase taxes. Are there any other pay-fors that would help move this jobs bill along?
MR. CARNEY: We have said, as you know, from the beginning that we are open to other means of paying for the American Jobs Act and the provisions therein, as long as they meet the President’s principles. We do not think it should be paid for by adding burdens to the middle class, adding burdens to our seniors. That’s just not -- those alternatives do not meet the President’s principles. And we simply believe, as the vast majority of the American people believe, that it is fair and appropriate to ask those who have done very well to pay a little bit more.
It is not, he believes, the President believes, too much to ask millionaires to pay a little bit more to ensure that we can put hundreds of thousands of teachers back to work, to ensure that we put construction workers on the job rebuilding our crumbling infrastructure -- our highways and bridges and schools. Not too much to ask millionaires and multimillionaires to pay a little bit more so that we can give a tax cut to working Americans -- 160 million Americans who earn a paycheck, and will get, if this -- if that provision within the jobs act is passed, on average, a $1,500 tax cut next year.
Certainly not too much to ask millionaires or multimillionaires to pay a little bit more to allow small businesses to get a tax cut, to allow small businesses to get a tax incentive or businesses of all kind, rather, kinds, to get a tax incentive to hire veterans returning from Iran and Afghanistan, men and women who have served our country so bravely and nobly, who are returning home to a difficult jobs market with incredible skills, and who deserve to get a job.
So that’s the choice that the President has put forward. And it’s not a very complicated one and it’s not a controversial one except on Capitol Hill. Out in the country, it’s an approach that has broad, bipartisan support. So we are simply asking that the bipartisan support that is reflected out in the country be shared up on Capitol Hill.
Q Thanks, Jay.
MR. CARNEY: Margaret.
Q Thanks, Jay.
MR. CARNEY: Last one. Margaret, yes.
Q So I just want to clarify a couple questions that I don’t really understand the answer to. At the top of the briefing, you were asked when and by who the President was informed, and you mentioned that he had been informed in reports before the briefing. Can you tell us when and by whom?
MR. CARNEY: I’ll have to take that question when he first was made aware of the reports. I simply was pointing out that while he did have his daily briefing, and this was the subject of that, at 10:00 a.m., he had certainly been aware of the reports prior to that.
Q And then -- hang on a second, I’m still asking my question. On the question of whether -- on how Qaddafi was taken, on whether he was taken alive and then killed, on whether that was an act of vigilantism, or whether it was ordered by someone official, and if so by whom it was ordered, on the question of whether the U.S. has just not yet been able to confirm this independently or whether you’re not going to try to because this is a NATO and a Libya deal -- can you answer those questions?
MR. CARNEY: All of them?
Q Yes. (Laughter.) My understanding is this is the only briefing we’ll get on this today, so, yes.
MR. CARNEY: Well, there may be folks speaking about this elsewhere. But the -- but I’m not saying that for sure. I simply don’t have any information for you on what are a number of very conflicting reports about Qaddafi’s death, and so I’m not going to answer hypotheticals about if this is how he died, what our reaction is; or if he died that way, what our reaction is. It’s just -- I think we need to wait and see.
And I think we need to -- we certainly -- for the TNC in general, we have called on them, as I said in the past, to be transparent and accountable and to move towards -- make that transition in an expedited fashion and according to what they’ve said in the past.
Q And would the President like to visit Libya? Or does he have any plans to visit Libya?
MR. CARNEY: I just don’t have an answer to that question right now. But thanks very much, guys.
3:14 P.M. EDT